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Appendix B: Sexual Exploitation Risk Assessment Framework (SERAF)

You can download the following blank SERAF framework form in Microsoft Word format or in pdf format.

Sexual Exploitation Risk Assessment Framework (SERAF)

Child / young person

Date of birth
Is the child receiving support services from any other agency
Please list other agencies
Has sexual exploitation been identified as a specific issue for this child?
Involvement with the youth justice system?
School / College

Vulnerabilities – factors that have been or are present in the child’s lifetime. Include any knowledge about current impact (last 6 months) on the child.

Vulnerabilities Y/N Please provide details where this risk is identified
Emotional neglect by parent/carer/family member    
Sexual Abuse
Breakdown of family relationships
Family history of domestic abuse
Family history of substance abuse
Family history of mental health difficulties
Low self esteem
Unsuitable/inappropriate accommodation
Isolated from peer/social networks
Lack of positive relationship with a productive/nurturing adult
SECTION TOTAL 1: Vulnerabilities
(score 1 for each ticked, if none ticked enter 0):

Moderate risk indicators – Please tick if present on date of referral or during the past 6 months

Staying out late
Multiple callers (unknown adults/older young people)
Use of a mobile phone that causes concern
Expressions of despair (self harm, overdose, eating disorder, challenging behaviour, aggression)
Exclusions from school or unexplained absences from or not engaged in school/college/training/work
Disclosures of sexual/physical assault followed by withdrawal of allegation
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)
Peers involved in clipping/sexual exploitation
Drugs misuse
Alcohol misuse
Use of the internet that causes concern
Living independently and failing to respond to attempts by worker to keep in touch
Associating with other sexually exploited children
SECTION TOTAL 2: Moderate risk indicators
(score 1 for each ticked, if none ticked enter 0):

Significant Risk Indicators – should only be selected in relation to adults outside the family (unless family member was facilitating exploitation)

Score – 5 for each CURRENT (last 6 months)

1 for each RECENT (6-12 months)

6 for each BOTH , (if none selected, enter 0)

Significant Risk Indicators
Periods of going missing overnight or longer
Boyfriend / girlfriend relationship with controlling adult
Physical abuse by controlling adult/physical injury without plausible explanation.
Emotional abuse by controlling adult (NOT parent / carer)
Entering/leaving vehicles driven by unknown adults (not taking and driving away: car theft)
Unexplained amounts of money, expensive clothing or other items
Frequenting areas known for on / off street sexual exploitation
Child under 13? If so, add 5 to section total: Yes / No


Do you have any information that might identify an individual who might pose a risk to a child as a result of CSE?
Name or nickname Date of birth


Age Gender


Ethnic appearance Any distinguishing features (tattoos, marks, scars)


Phone numbers Address


Any social media you know they are using



Make Model Colour Registration


Any other details

Why do you think this person is a perpetrator and what is the relationship to the victim, is any? Are there any risks that cannot be disclosed due to confidentiality/data protection?


SERAF Scale – add all three SECTION TOTALS together:
Risk Category (see How to complete the SERAF for guidance):


Professional Assessment

What do you think is working well?


What are you worried about?


Professional judgement

Please use your professional judgement to reflect upon the indicators you have selected above and consider the health, welfare and safety of the child in question


What do you think needs to happen next?




Person completing form:

Designation and agency