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Want to know more about sleep? Read on!

Circadian Rhythm, often called the ‘body clock’

We all have a sleep-wake cycle known as the circadian rhythm or body clock which is regulated by light and dark.  The rhythms take time to develop in new-borns and it is very normal for infants and young children to wake regularly during the night. By about 6 months most babies have a regular sleep-wake cycle.  Putting children to bed at the same time each night and waking them up at the same time each morning, even at weekends, will help to enable a regular sleep-wake cycle.  When the hour changes from winter time to summer time some children’s sleep-wake cycle goes off track.  A child’s sleep-wake cycle can be reset by bringing bedtime forward by 15 minutes every three nights until the desired time is reached.

 

Melatonin

Melatonin is a hormone that occurs naturally in our body when it gets dark. It helps us sleep.  It is a good idea to put your child to bed in a dark environment and dim lights in the run up to bedtime.

Melatonin production is negatively affected by screen activity, like watching a television/iPad or playing computer games.  The light from the screen stops melatonin being produced. Avoiding these activities in the hour (or more) leading up to bedtime is a good idea to help the sleep cycle.  Some children and those with autistic spectrum disorder may produce less melatonin.

 

Source: Sleep Health Foundation https://sleepfoundation.org/sleep-topics/how-blue-light-affects-kids-sleep 

 

How much sleep is needed? Sleep duration

Sleep needs change as children get older and every human requires a different amount of sleep throughout their life.  However, there is a recommended number of hours to aim for:

 

Figure 3

Sleep toolkit figure 5

 

Research suggests that, in Western societies, many adults and some children and young people are under-sleeping by roughly one hour per night due to lifestyle changes.  When accumulated over one week this adds up to a sleep deficit of about one full night.

 

Source: Royal Society for Public Health (2016) Waking up to the Benefits of Sleep, University of Oxford

 

Sleep routines, sometimes called ‘sleep hygiene’

Daytime activities

What happens in the day can effect sleep: exercise improves sleep onset (how long it takes to fall asleep). Diet during the day can affect sleep. Caffeine blocks the sleep-wake regulation.

Sleep Environment

The sleep environment needs to be safe, a comfortable temperature, with space to lie down, low level of noise, low light or darkness and a lack of distractions.

Bedtime routines

Routines can teach children to associate a sequence of events e.g. upstairs, bath, brush teeth, PJs, to bed, story time etc. with bedtime and sleep.